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Critical Podium Dewanand



Sacrificer           Stephen Knapp 
Sacrifice code       wfor0422
Sacrifice date       25 march 2009

Forwarded message from Stephen Knapp

(476 CE)


Born in 476 CE in Kusumpur (Bihar), Aryabhatt's
intellectual brilliance remapped the boundaries of
mathematics and astronomy. In 499 CE, at the age of 23, he
wrote a text on astronomy and an unparallel treatise on
mathematics called "Aryabhatiyam." He formulated the
process of calculating the motion of planets and the time
of eclipses. Aryabhatt was the first to proclaim that the
earth is round, it rotates on its axis, orbits the sun and
is suspended in space -- 1000 years before Copernicus
published his heliocentric theory. He is also acknowledged
for calculating p (Pi) to four decimal places: 3.1416 and
the sine table in trigonometry. Centuries later, in 825 CE,
the Arab mathematician, Mohammed Ibna Musa credited the
value of Pi to the Indians, "This value has been given by
the Hindus." And above all, his most spectacular
contribution was the concept of zero without which modern
computer technology would have been non-existent. Aryabhatt
was a colossus in the field of mathematics.

(1114-1183 CE)


Born in the obscure village of Vijjadit (Jalgaon) in
Maharashtr, Bhaskaracharya's work in Algebra, Arithmetic
and Geometry catapulted him to fame and immortality. His
renowned mathematical works called "Lilavati" and
"Beejaganit" are considered to be unparalled and a memorial
to his profound intelligence. Its translation in several
languages of the world bear testimony to its eminence. In
his treatise "Siddhant Shiromani" he writes on planetary
positions, eclipses, cosmography, mathematical techniques
and astronomical equipment. In the "Soorya Siddhant" he
makes a note on the force of gravity: "Objects fall on
earth due to a force of attraction by the earth. Therefore,
the earth, planets, constellations, moon, and sun are held
in orbit due to this attraction." Bhaskaracharya was the
first to discover gravity, 500 years before Isaac Newton.
He was the champion among mathematicians of ancient and
medieval India. His works fired the imagination of Persian
and European scholars, who through research on his works
earned fame and popularity.

(600 BCE)


As the founder of "Vaisheshik Darshan " -- one of six
principal philosophies of India -- Acharya Kanad was a
genius in philosophy. He is believed to have been born in
Prabhas Kshetra near Dwarika in Gujarat. He was the pioneer
expounder of realism, law of causation and the atomic
theory. He has classified all the objects of creation into
nine elements, namely: earth, water, light, wind, ether,
time, space, mind and soul. He says, "Every object of
creation is made of atoms which in turn connect with each
other to form molecules." His statement ushered in the
Atomic Theory for the first time ever in the world, nearly
2500 years before John Dalton. Kanad has also described the
dimension and motion of atoms and their chemical reactions
with each other. The eminent historian, T. N. Colebrook,
has said, "Compared to the scientists of Europe, Kanad and
other Indian scientists were the global masters of this

(100 CE)


He was an extraordinary wizard of science born in the
nondescript village of Baluka in Madhya Pradesh . His
dedicated research for twelve years produced maiden
discoveries and inventions in the faculties of chemistry
and metallurgy. Textual masterpieces like "Ras Ratnakar",
"Rashrudaya" and "Rasendramangal" are his renowned
contributions to the science of chemistry. Where the
medieval alchemists of England failed, Nagarjuna had
discovered the alchemy of transmuting base metals into
gold. As the author of medical books like "Arogyamanjari"
and "Yogasar," he also made significant contributions to
the field of curative medicine. Because of his profound
scholarliness and versatile knowledge, he was appointed as
Chancellor of the famous University of Nalanda. Nagarjun's
milestone discoveries impress and astonish the scientists
of today.

(600 BCE)


Acharya Charak has been crowned as the Father of Medicine.
His renowned work, the "Charak Samhita", is considered as
an encyclopedia of Ayurveda. His principles, diagoneses,
and cures retain their potency and truth even after a
couple of millennia. When the science of anatomy was
confused with different theories in Europe, Acharya Charak
revealed through his innate genius and enquiries the facts
on human anatomy, embryology, pharmacology, blood
circulation and diseases like diabetes, tuberculosis, heart
disease, etc. In the "Charak Samhita" he has described the
medicinal qualities and functions of 100,000 herbal plants.
He has emphasized the influence of diet and activity on
mind and body. He has proved the correlation of
spirituality and physical health contributed greatly to
diagnostic and curative sciences. He has also prescribed
and ethical charter for medical practitioners two centuries
prior to the Hippocratic oath. Through his genius and
intuition, Acharya Charak made landmark contributions to
Ayurvedal. He forever remains etched in the annals of
history as one of the greatest and noblest of rishi-

(600 BCE)


A genius who has been glowingly recognized in the annals of
medical science. Born to sage Vishwamitra, Acharya Sudhrut
details the first ever surgery procedures in "Sushrut
Samhita", a unique encyclopedia of surgery. He is venerated
as the father of plastic surgery and the science of
anesthesia. When surgery was in its infancy in Europe,
Sushrut was performing Rhinoplasty (restoration of a
damaged nose) and other challenging operations. In the
"Sushrut Samhita," he prescribes treatment for twelve types
of fractures and six types of dislocations. His details on
human embryology are simply amazing. Sushrut used 125 types
of surgical instruments including scalpels, lancets,
needles, Cathers and rectal speculums; mostly designed from
the jaws of animals and birds. He has also described a
number of stitching methods; the use of horse's hair as
thread and fibers of bark. In the "Sushrut Samhita", and
fibers of bark. In the "Sushrut Samhita", he details 300
types of operations. The ancient Indians were the pioneers
in amputation, caesarian and cranial surgeries. Acharya
Sushrut was a giant in the arena of medical science.

(499-587 CE)


Renowned astrologer and astronomer who was honored with a
special decoration and status as one of the nine gems in
the court of King Vikramaditya in Avanti (Ujjain).
Varahamihir's book "Panchsiddhant" holds a prominent place
in the realm of astronomy. He notes that the moon and
planets are lustrous not because of their own light but due
to sunlight. In the "Bruhad Samhita" and "Bruhad Jaatak",
he has revealed his discoveries in the domains of
geography, constellation, science, botany and animal
science. In his treatise on botanical science, Varamihir
presents cures for various diseases afflicting plants and
trees. The rishi-scientist survives through his unique
contributions to the science of astrology and astronomy.

(200 BCE)


The Science of Yog is one of several unique contributions
of India to the world. It seeks to discover and realize the
ultimate Reality through yogic practices. Acharya
Patanjali, the founder, hailed from the district of Gonda
(Ganara) in Uttar Pradesh. He prescribed the control of
praan (life breath) as the means to control the body, mind
and soul. This subsequently rewards one with good health
and inner happiness. Acharya Patanjali's 84 yogic postures
effectively enhance the efficiency of the respiratory,
circulatory, nervous, digestive and endocrine systems and
many other organs of the body. Yog has eight limbs where
Acharya Patanjali shows the attainment of the ultimate
bliss of God in samadhi through the disciplines of: yam,
niyam, aasun, pranayam, pratyahar, dhyaan and dharn. The
Science of Yog has gained popularity because of its
scientific approach and benefits. Yog also holds the
honored place as one of six philosophies in the Indian
philosophical system. Acharya Patanjali will forever be
remembered and revered as a pioneer in the science of self-
discipline, happiness and self-realization.

(800 BCE)


Acharya Bharadwaj had a hermitage in the holy city of
Prayag and was an ordent apostle of Ayurveda and mechanical
sciences. He authored the " Yantra Sarvasva " which
includes astonishing and outstanding discoveries in
aviation science, space science and flying machines. He has
described three categories of flying machines: 1.) One that
flies on earth from one place to another. 2.) One that
travels from one planet to another. 3.) And One that
travels from one universe to another. His designs and
descriptions have impressed and amazed aviation engineers
of today. His brilliance in aviation technology is further
reflected through techniques described by him:

1. Profound Secret: The technique to make a flying machine
invisible through the application of sunlight and wind

2. Living Secret: The technique to make an invisible space
machine visible through the application of electrical

3. Secret of Eavesdropping: The technique to listen to a
conversation in another plane.

4. Visual Secrets: The technique to see what's happening
inside another plane.

Through his innovative and brilliant discoveries, Acharya
Bharadwaj has been recognized as the pioneer of aviation

(3000 BCE)


Celebrated as the founder of Sankhya philosophy, Acharya
Kapil is believed to have been born in 3000 BCE to the
illustrious sage Kardam and Devhuti. He gifted the world
with the Sankhya School of Thought. His pioneering work
threw light on the nature and principles of the ultimate
Soul (Purush), primal matter (Prakruti) and creation. His
concept of transformation of energy and profound
commentaries on atma, non-atma and the subtle elements of
the cosmos places him in an elite class of master achievers
-- incomparable to the discoveries of other cosmologists.
On his assertion that Prakruti, with the inspiration of
Purusha, is the mother of cosmic creation and all energies,
he contributed a new chapter in the science of cosmology.
Because of his extrasensory observations and revelations on
the secrets of creation, he is recognized and saluted as
the Father of Cosmology.

End of forwarded message from Stephen Knapp

{see the replies below:

Yes he(Aryabhatta) was great, but the greeks had figured the earth was round
hundreds of years before him. Pi was invented in multiple places, and
the concept of zero in various forms was also invented in more then one

Early complex cultures had often a common set of problems to solve as to
the above topics. The same or similar solution was also often found in
more then one place .

2.(reply to 1 above)A search on spherical earth shows up links to that information.
However, that does not, in any way, lessen the importance of what they
(ancient thinkers) managed to discover with nothing but some
basic information. On the roundness of earth, it isn't clear that Aryabhatta
was the first Indian to say the earth is round. Clearly he has
summarized some of the findings as existed at that time. But he did
predict elliptical orbits and other information that I could not find
any reference elsewhere.

3,(reply to 1 above) What is interesting is that in essence, each evolution of knowledge, happened across the world at the same time.
300-350 BCE is a Prime Example.
so is the threshold of Myths and Legends circa 3000-3500 BCE

4 (in reply to main item) i notice that the interest in hinduism among the american scholars is rising sharpley. but it follows two tracks, one among genuine scholars, the second among those sponsored by xtian outfits that feels, needlessly, that they
will get railroaded, and hence must find ways to mangle hinduism. one such
hindu magler is harvard univ prof witzel - and the one who "teaches"

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